EMU member countries differ considerably in terms of labour productivity. However, the ECB's unlimited bond-buying programme is opposed by many critics. Persson therefore assumes that the US specialisation process has levelled out and that the US seems to be a more stable currency area than the EMU.
The theory of optimum currency areas The theory of optimum currency areas pioneered by Mundell was further complemented by McKinnon and again by Kenen. The periphery countries, on the contrary, support the idea of Eurobonds in order to unify Europe's debts — an idea which is rejected by the German government.
Major natural disasters are likely to fall into this category, as will the immediate effects of political events like German re-unification or Portuguese de-colonisation. While some countries might increase their competitiveness, other countries would be likely to lose competitive capacities.
Moreover, temporarily leaving the currency area could decrease divergent pressures on the currency if every country that suffered a loss of competitiveness left the EMU.
A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas, in: The geographic mobility of EU workers is very low across euro area borders as well as within their own countries. The index takes a value between zero and two. European Commissions approach The symmetry of shocks as optimalisation criterion The influence of trade integration on the symmetry of shocksInternational finance The endogeneity of OCA The influence of trade integration on the assymetry of shocks Countries which do not fulfill the OCA criteria ex ante may fulfill them ex psot Empirical evidence Bayoumi and EichengreenFrankel and Rose International finance The endogeneity of OCAOne can not assess the fulfilment of the OCA criteria on the base of historical data Endogenous processes within currency unions Positive correlation between trade intensity and business cycle correlation International finance Source: Mundell's analysis was shortly afterwards elaborated on by McKinnonand by Kenensince when optimum currency area OCA theory was developed by a growing number of studies, both theoretical and empirical.
Mundell framed the problem of forming a currency area in purely economic terms: If funding from the EU budget is merely used to substitute for national expenditure which would have taken place anyway, the effect will be more cyclical than structural.
Evidence from the US states, in: However, this increase is lower than had initially been expected. Yet where such events are, in effect, Acts of God, there can be few significant implications for OCA theory. On the other hand, the member countries of a currency area benefit from lower transaction costs of switching between currencies.
Moreover, inter-regional financial transfers can be useful, not merely to iron out cyclical problems, but also to promote structural change. optimum currency area (OCA) theory Optimum currency area (OCA) theory originates from two seminal articles in the early s by the economistsMundell()andMcKinnon().
2 The main elements of the OCA theory An optimum currency area (OCA) can be defined as the optimal geographical area for a single currency, or for several currencies. Non-Technical Summary This paper surveys the literature on the optimum currency area (OCA) theory. It is organised into four main phases.
The first is the “pioneering phase” from the early s to. The euro raises issues addressed by a theory known as the optimum currency area (OCA) theory.
Consider a number of countries, and call them a region. If these countries experience similar macroeconomic shocks, and if there’s labor mobility between.
Optimum currency area theory (OCA) was developed in by Canadian economist Robert Mundell based on earlier work by Abba Lerner. It speculates that there is an optimum geopolitical area which.
Jun 24, · This was the kind of problem optimum currency area theory warned would be very difficult to handle without currency devaluation; euro optimists had believed that reforms would make labor markets sufficiently flexible to deal with such situations.Optimum currency area oca theory